Baltimore Youth in Publicly Funded Programs

Original Source: Connolly, F., Grigg, J., & Cronister, C. (2018). “Baltimore Youth in Publicly Funded Programs”. BERC Website: Publications.
Subject: Publicly Funded Programs
Research question/s:
Motivation/s: This brief provides a visual representation of the flow into and out of publicly funded programs for children born to mothers who lived in Baltimore from September 2, 2007 through September 1, 2008.

1.     Of the 9,693 born that year, almost a third (3,010) were not seen in any of the programs. This may be due to the fact that the family moved out of the City or families may choose to enroll their children in independent private daycare, preschool, and kindergarten and not participate in publicly funded programs.

2.     Most children enroll in City Schools. That peaks in kindergarten where 59.3% (5,746/9693) of children born in the City enroll. By grade 1, that percent has reduced to reflect 57.8% (5.606/9,693).

3.     The most common pathway is from City Schools kindergarten to Grade 1 which represents 5,422 children. The next largest pathway represents 3,747 youth and represents moving Pre-K to kindergarten. The third largest represents children born in the City and not seen in any of these programs, a total of 3,010. The next two are for children moving from birth to pre-K (2,218) and Birth to Head Start (1,581). The sixth largest pathway is for children who were born in Baltimore and next appear in the Baltimore Infants and Toddlers program (BITP). BITP enrollment is initiated with a referral by a pediatrician, parent, or early education staff working in programs, and assessment and determination to be ineligible (not a participants), or eligible (participant). Learn more about BITP here. The final pathway that includes 1,000 or more students is from Birth to kindergarten.

Keywords: Publicly Funded Programs
Type: Research Brief
Status of the Work: Published

Baltimore OrchKids: An Examination of Student Outcomes

Original Source: Durham, R. E. (2018). “Baltimore OrchKids: An Examination of Student Outcomes”. BERC Website: Publications.
Subject: Out-of-School-Time Programs
Research question/s:

1.     What were the characteristics of students participating and persisting in the program, and how do they compare to other City Schools students?

2.     How did student mobility within and out of the district relate to OrchKids participation?

3.     How did OrchKids participation impact student outcomes, and did the effect of participation vary by the grade level of participants? Specifically:

a.     How did participants’ attendance and chronic absence rates compare to that of otherwise similar students?

b.    Did participants receive fewer suspensions from school than similar students?

c.     How did participants perform on English and math state assessments as compared to similar students?

Motivation/s: This report describes research to assess the impact of participation in OrchKids, an out-of-school-time (OST) program implemented in several Baltimore schools.
Data: This study utilized roster data provided by OrchKids listing their participants from 2009-10 through 2016-17. These records were matched using student IDs with student-level administrative data provided to BERC by City Schools’ Office of Achievement and Accountability.
Methods: Multivariate Regression Estimates

1.     Participants joining the program in preK through 4th grade, and persisting in the program for more than one year, had higher average daily attendance, lower chronic absence, and were less likely to receive a suspension from school, relative to similar comparison students.

2.     OrchKids participants joining the program between 5th and 8th grade and persisting for at least 2 years had higher average daily attendance than comparison students, though chronic absence rates were similar.

3.     There was a significant relationship between OrchKids participation and performance on state assessments in both English/language arts and math, as well:

a.     Relative to comparison students, those who participated in OrchKids for at least 5 years were significantly more likely than comparison students to score proficient or advanced on the MSA English/language arts and math assessments, as well as to meet or exceed expectations on the PARCC English/language arts assessment.

b.    Participants who joined OrchKids in elementary school and participated for 2 to 4 years were significantly more likely to score proficient or advanced on the MSA math assessment.

Keywords: Out-of-School-Time Programs, Student Outcomes
Type: Technical Paper
Status of the Work: Published

Predicting Kindergarten Enrollment in Baltimore

Original Source: Grigg, J., Abt, M., & Connolly, F. (2018). “Predicting Kindergarten Enrollment in Baltimore”. BERC Website: Publications.
Subject: Kindergarten
Research question/s:
Motivation/s: This brief examines the relation between the number of Baltimore-born children and the subsequent kindergarten enrollment in Baltimore City Public Schools (City Schools). The authors use this birth information to make predictions about kindergarten enrollment into the future.
Data: Publicly reported data from the Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) and the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (DHMH).

1.     School year 2014-15 represented a peak in number of children enrolled in kindergarten for two reasons: it represented the second highest number of births over this period along with the peak enrollment rate (74%).

2.     Subsequent to that year, the number of babies born to Baltimore residents declined along as did the enrollment rate.

3.     The enrollment rate has been relatively high in recent years. The lowest observed figure was 59% in 2005-06 school year.

4.     Going forward, 2016, the most recent year of birth data, had the lowest number of births since 1995 (8,526).

5.     Without an increase in the proportion of youth enrolling over the next five years, the kindergarten population will decline.

6.     The decline is not uniform across racial and ethnic groups. In fact, it is observed exclusively among Baltimore’s African-American/Black population. In 2000, over 7,000 African-American/Black babies were born to Baltimore residents; in 2016; the figure was 5,152. Over the same period, the Non-Hispanic White population was nearly constant (approximately 2,200), the American Indian, Asian, or Pacific Islander population doubled (from 134 to 275), and the Hispanic population increased four-fold (approximately 200 to over 800).

7.     The trend is of declining enrollment has continued steadily in recent years, and the decline has been accelerated by decreasing numbers of non-Hispanic African-American/Black children born in Baltimore City.

Keywords: Enrollment, Kindergarten
Type: Research Brief
Status of the Work: Published